Thane is a city in Maharashtra, India, at the head of the Thane Creek. It is the administrative headquarters of Thane district. On 16 April 1853, the G.I.P. Railway’s first train ever to run in India rolled out from "Boree Bunder" (now the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus) to "Thane" (sometimes mispronounced as "Thana"), 34 kilometers away. This marked the dawn of the Railway Age in Asia. Thane covers an area of 147 km2 and has a population of more than 1.8 million within its municipal limits, according to the 2011 census
It is located to the northeast of Mumbai (it shares that island with the Mumbai City District, with Mumbai Suburban District and with Mira-Bhayandar Municipal Corporation), and partly on the mainland across Thane Creek. Spanning an area of about 147 km², the city is located at an elevation of 7 meters above sea level. It is surrounded by hills, including the hill of Yeoor and Parsik Hill. It is divided politically into two parts by the Thane Creek, a stream that courses from the Ulhas River to the Arabian Sea. Two road bridges and one rail bridge connect the two parts of the city. It is one of the oldest cities of India, with its history dating back to about 2,000 years. Thane Municipal Corporation City's limits includes Kopri to the south, Wagle estate Naupada, Pachpakhadi to the west, Kalwa, Mumbra and Diva to the east and Manpada, Bramand, Kasarwadavli, Kapurbawdi to the north.
Thane is also known as the City of Lakes. The city has around 35 lakes. The most beautiful of them is the Masunda Talao, also known as Talao Pali. The lake offers boating and water scooter facilities. The lake is near Gadkari Rangayatan, a drama theatre which is a very popular hub for entertainment in Thane. The Upvan Lake is located at the foot-hills of the Yeoor hills and is a scenic spot. It is flanked by the Yeoor hills on one side and the tall Neelkanth Heights on one side, and is a common spot for recreation. Other lakes include:
- Masunda Lake Talao Pali.
- Kachrali Lake
- Makhmali Lake
- Ambe Ghonsali Lake
- Siddheshwar Lake
- Jail Lake
- Joshi Lake
- Wagle Lake
- Upvan Lake
- Yashasvi Nagar Lake
- Kausa Lake
- Kharegaon Lake
- Raila Devi Lake
- Rewale Lake
- Bramhala-Kolbad Lake
- Haryali-Chendani Koliwada Lake
Thane has a tropical monsoon climate that borders on a tropical wet and dry climate. Overall climate is equable with high rainfall days and very few days of extreme temperatures. Thane temperature varies from 22°C to 36°C. In winter temperature is between 12°C to 20°C while summer temperature ranges from 36°C to 41°C. Out of total rainfall, 80% rainfall is experienced during June to October. Average annual rainfall is 2000–2500 mm and humidity is 61-86%, making it a humid-perhumid zone. The driest days are in winter while the wettest days are experienced in July.
|[hide]Climate data for Thane|
|Average high °C (°F)||30.6
|Average low °C (°F)||16.4
|Precipitation mm (inches)||3.1
|Source: Government of Maharashtra|
Thane was inhabited with people of the Agri and Koli communities, and their villages still exist today as "Chendani Koliwada", "Kopari Goan", and "Uthalsar". It also includes Majiwade, Balkum, Dhokali, Kolshet, Wadavli, and others. In 1825, when the British explored their newly annexed territories in Bassein, they discovered that Thane was inhabited primarily by Roman Catholics, who are both native and Portuguese, and that the latter was virtually indistinguishable from the former in skin color and custom. The local villagers, like Kolis (fishermen), are converted into indigenous Catholics mostly from villages of Chendani, Koliwada, and Majiwada. The Agri and Koli community people had their own culture. Some of the upper class East Indian families in the Khatri ward of Thane still speak Portuguese.
Thane has a predominantly Maharashtrian culture, although, like its neighbouring city Mumbai, it has a cosmopolitan culture as well. Because of the huge residential boom, the city has witnessed a large number of immigrants from the nearby city of Mumbai as well as from other pockets of state and country. The face of the city is nowadays becoming increasingly cosmopolitan. Beside Marathi, sizable populations of North Indians, South Indians, Sindhis, Gujaratis and Marwari and other people from different regions including Pakistan live in Thane, mainly because of its proximity to Mumbai. Thane is bordered by the Yeoor Hills on one side and is dotted with numerous beautiful lakes, which are a cause of cooler weather than that of Mumbai. Festivals such as Ganesh Chaturthi, Diwali, Gudhi Padwa, Holi, Durga Puja, Mahashivratri and Shivaji Jayanti are celebrated with great zest in the city. Thane offers high rewards amounting to 1 million rupees (US$ 25,000) for winners of Dahi Handi sport during the Gokulashtami festival.
Throughout recorded history the city has left its mark under various names. The earliest evidence of Thane appears in the works of the Greek geographer, Ptolemy, who, in his writings ( 135 – 150 AD) refers to a place called Chersonesus, which, according to researches, is the area around Thane creek. The city crops up again in the Middle Ages and slabs and copper plates dating back to the period have been discovered in Thane. One of them, dug up from the foundations of Thane Fort in 1787, dated 1078 AD, is apparently a land grant from Arikesara Devaraja, sovereign of the city of Tagara, wherein he address the inhabitants of a city called Sri Sthanaka. Friar Jordanus, a great traveler, who visited the Bombay city between AD 1321 and 1324, describes it as being under a Muslim governor. He leaves a detailed sketch of early converted Christians in Bombay and refers to the martyrdom of four Christian priests in the region, more than 200 years before the Portuguese ever set foot in India. The celebrated Ibn Batuta and Abul Feda, contemporaries of Friar Jordanus, also came here. They refer to Thane as Kukin Tana and speak of its fame as a port from which ships sailed to the gulf carrying a kind of cloth called 'Tanasi' which was produced in Thane. Duarte Barbosa, a noted traveler, described Thane by the name Tana Mayambu 25 years before the Portuguese conquest. He paints a vivid picture of the town as one of Moorish mosques and temples, with many pleasant gardens. The Portuguese came to Thane about 1530 and ruled for over 200 years till 1739. Thane was then known as Cacabe de Tana. Work on the Thane Fort began in 1730. The Marathas, who conquered Bassein and Thane in 1737 and 1739, held sway over the region till 1784, when the British captured the Fort and ruled Thane, then also called Tana. They made it the headquarters of the district administration with a district collector stationed in Thane. The Thane Municipal Council was formed in 1863 when the city's population reached above 9000.
Main article: Transportation in Thane
Thane was the terminus for the first ever passenger train in India. On 16 April 1853, the first passenger train service was inaugurated between Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) and Thane. Covering a distance of 34 kilometres (21 mi), it was hauled by three locomotives – Sahib, Sindh and Sultan.
Thane is well connected with neighbouring suburbs through central railways suburban railway network. It is also a starting point for Thane-Panvel line. Thane is also one of the halts for many outstation trains moving in and out of Mumbai.
Thane Municipal Transport (TMT), Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST), Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport (NMMT), State Transport (ST) corporations provide public bus service to the city. Auto rickshaws on meter is available to travel within city along with taxis.
The public transport on newly developed Ghodbunder road area is not satisfactory at the moment and needs lot of improvement .The newly constructed Station Area Traffic Improvement Scheme (SATIS) has however given good results. The series of flyover bridges are being constructed on the Ghodbunder road to overcome the traffic issues at Kapurbawadi, Patlipada, Waghbil and Manpada junctions of which the 3 flyovers (Patlipada, Waghbil and Manpada)has been opened.There are also plans for introducing L.R.T. and tramways for local transport.The first L.R.T. line will run from Anandnagar(Thane east) to Ovala village on Ghodbandar road.
Thane contains both a few cinema multiplexes in the city, and two theaters, namely, Gadkari Rangayatan, and the newer one Dr. Kashinath Ghanekar auditorium located near Hiranandani Meadows. Both are owned and managed by Thane Municipal Corporation. The following is a list of multiplexes/ movie theaters in Thane.
- Inox Multiplex, Korum Mall
- Cinema Star Multiplex, High Street Mall
- CineMAX Multiplex, Eternity Mall
- CineMAX Multiplex, Wondermall
- Gold Digital, Prabhat Mall
- Vandana Talkies
- Malhar Talkies
- Anand Talkies (Thane East)
- Ganesh Talkies
Apart from the above there are a couple of multiplexes in Mulund which are in close proximity to Thane. A new multiplex viz., Cinepolis in Viva City Mall is expected to open in 2013.